原创

《Unity 3D游戏客户端基础框架》消息系统

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,遵循 CC 4.0 BY-SA 版权协议,转载请附上原文出处链接和本声明。
本文链接:https://linsh-tech.blog.csdn.net/article/details/76514222

功能分析:

首先,我们必须先明确一个消息系统的核心功能:

  • 一个通用的事件监听器
  • 管理各个业务监听的事件类型(注册和解绑事件监听器)
  • 全局广播事件
  • 广播事件所传参数数量和数据类型都是可变的(数量可以是 0~3,数据类型是泛型)

设计思路:

清楚了上述的几个要求之后,我们不难自行定制一个业务层的消息系统,即在消息系统初始化时将每个模块绑定的消息列表,根据消息类型分类(用一个 string 类型的数据类标识),即建立一个字典 Dictionary<string,List<Model>> 每条消息触发时需要通知的模块列表,即某条消息触发,遍历字典中绑定的模块列表,然后有两种选择方案:

  • 假如模块是与 gameObject 绑定的继承自 MonoBehaviour 的脚本,通过 Unity 原生的向指定模块发送消息的接口 gameObject.SendMessage(message) 发送消息,模块用则用 public void getMessage(string message) 函数接收消息;

  • 假如模块是独立的 C# 实例,则可以给模块设计一个基类,基类中有一个虚构函数,在具体模块中重写这个函数,这样消息中心要想模块发送触发消息时,直接将模块字典中绑定的模块引用强转为基类类型,然后调用该虚构函数。

然而,这样的 DIY 的消息管理系统最常见的问题就是:模块已经销毁了,但在字典中的引用还在,那么消息要传递给模块的时候,就会触发 MissingReferenceException 或者 NullReferenceException 这类空引用错误。


插件简介:

Advanced CSharp Messenger 是一个 C# 高级版本的消息传递系统 。它将会在加载一个新的 level 后自动清理其事件表。这将防止程序员意外地调用被毁坏的方法,从而将有助于防止很多 MissingReferenceExceptions。此消息传递系统基于杆海德 CSharpMessenger 和马格努斯沃尔费尔特的CSharpMessenger 扩展。

核心功能:

1.注册一个事件监听器:

Messenger.AddListener<T>( "消息类型标识", OnCallback);
//事件回调函数
void OnCallback(T data){

}

监听事件可以带参也可不带参,参数类型是泛型,既可以传递基础数据类型,也可以传递 gameObject 对象,当然两种情况属于完全不同的时间,用一个字符串来表示事件的类型,OnCallback 是事件出发时的回调函数,回调函数的参数表与监听格式一致。

2.取消注册事件监听器:

这里需要注意的就是与注册时的参数格式完全一致,只是把 AddListener 改成 RemoveListener

Messenger.RemoveListener<T>( "消息类型标识", OnCallback);

3.广播事件:

//不带参
Messenger.Broadcast( "消息类型标识");
//带参
Messenger.Broadcast<T>( "消息类型标识", data1);

第一个参数是事件类型标识,后面的参数表是与 <T> 中指定的数据类型对应的回传数据。


插件引入:

只需在当前项目组添加一下两个脚本,即可开始使用 Advanced CSharp Messenger 这个消息管理器来管理我们项目的消息了。

Callback.cs

public delegate void Callback();
public delegate void Callback<T>(T arg1);
public delegate void Callback<T, U>(T arg1, U arg2);
public delegate void Callback<T, U, V>(T arg1, U arg2, V arg3);

Messenger.cs

/*
 * Advanced C# messenger by Ilya Suzdalnitski. V1.0
 * 
 * Based on Rod Hyde's "CSharpMessenger" and Magnus Wolffelt's "CSharpMessenger Extended".
 * 
 * Features:
    * Prevents a MissingReferenceException because of a reference to a destroyed message handler.
    * Option to log all messages
    * Extensive error detection, preventing silent bugs
 * 
 * Usage examples:
    1. Messenger.AddListener<GameObject>("prop collected", PropCollected);
       Messenger.Broadcast<GameObject>("prop collected", prop);
    2. Messenger.AddListener<float>("speed changed", SpeedChanged);
       Messenger.Broadcast<float>("speed changed", 0.5f);
 * 
 * Messenger cleans up its evenTable automatically upon loading of a new level.
 * 
 * Don't forget that the messages that should survive the cleanup, should be marked with Messenger.MarkAsPermanent(string)
 * 
 */

//#define LOG_ALL_MESSAGES
//#define LOG_ADD_LISTENER
//#define LOG_BROADCAST_MESSAGE
#define REQUIRE_LISTENER

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;

static internal class Messenger {
    #region Internal variables

    //Disable the unused variable warning
#pragma warning disable 0414
    //Ensures that the MessengerHelper will be created automatically upon start of the game.
    static private MessengerHelper messengerHelper = ( new GameObject("MessengerHelper") ).AddComponent< MessengerHelper >();
#pragma warning restore 0414

    static public Dictionary<string, Delegate> eventTable = new Dictionary<string, Delegate>();

    //Message handlers that should never be removed, regardless of calling Cleanup
    static public List< string > permanentMessages = new List< string > ();
    #endregion
    #region Helper methods
    //Marks a certain message as permanent.
    static public void MarkAsPermanent(string eventType) {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES
        Debug.Log("Messenger MarkAsPermanent \t\"" + eventType + "\"");
#endif

        permanentMessages.Add( eventType );
    }


    static public void Cleanup()
    {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES
        Debug.Log("MESSENGER Cleanup. Make sure that none of necessary listeners are removed.");
#endif

        List< string > messagesToRemove = new List<string>();

        foreach (KeyValuePair<string, Delegate> pair in eventTable) {
            bool wasFound = false;

            foreach (string message in permanentMessages) {
                if (pair.Key == message) {
                    wasFound = true;
                    break;
                }
            }

            if (!wasFound)
                messagesToRemove.Add( pair.Key );
        }

        foreach (string message in messagesToRemove) {
            eventTable.Remove( message );
        }
    }

    static public void PrintEventTable()
    {
        Debug.Log("\t\t\t=== MESSENGER PrintEventTable ===");

        foreach (KeyValuePair<string, Delegate> pair in eventTable) {
            Debug.Log("\t\t\t" + pair.Key + "\t\t" + pair.Value);
        }

        Debug.Log("\n");
    }
    #endregion

    #region Message logging and exception throwing
    static public void OnListenerAdding(string eventType, Delegate listenerBeingAdded) {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES || LOG_ADD_LISTENER
        Debug.Log("MESSENGER OnListenerAdding \t\"" + eventType + "\"\t{" + listenerBeingAdded.Target + " -> " + listenerBeingAdded.Method + "}");
#endif

        if (!eventTable.ContainsKey(eventType)) {
            eventTable.Add(eventType, null );
        }

        Delegate d = eventTable[eventType];
        if (d != null && d.GetType() != listenerBeingAdded.GetType()) {
            throw new ListenerException(string.Format("Attempting to add listener with inconsistent signature for event type {0}. Current listeners have type {1} and listener being added has type {2}", eventType, d.GetType().Name, listenerBeingAdded.GetType().Name));
        }
    }

    static public void OnListenerRemoving(string eventType, Delegate listenerBeingRemoved) {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES
        Debug.Log("MESSENGER OnListenerRemoving \t\"" + eventType + "\"\t{" + listenerBeingRemoved.Target + " -> " + listenerBeingRemoved.Method + "}");
#endif

        if (eventTable.ContainsKey(eventType)) {
            Delegate d = eventTable[eventType];

            if (d == null) {
                throw new ListenerException(string.Format("Attempting to remove listener with for event type \"{0}\" but current listener is null.", eventType));
            } else if (d.GetType() != listenerBeingRemoved.GetType()) {
                throw new ListenerException(string.Format("Attempting to remove listener with inconsistent signature for event type {0}. Current listeners have type {1} and listener being removed has type {2}", eventType, d.GetType().Name, listenerBeingRemoved.GetType().Name));
            }
        } else {
            throw new ListenerException(string.Format("Attempting to remove listener for type \"{0}\" but Messenger doesn't know about this event type.", eventType));
        }
    }

    static public void OnListenerRemoved(string eventType) {
        if (eventTable[eventType] == null) {
            eventTable.Remove(eventType);
        }
    }

    static public void OnBroadcasting(string eventType) {
#if REQUIRE_LISTENER
        if (!eventTable.ContainsKey(eventType)) {
            throw new BroadcastException(string.Format("Broadcasting message \"{0}\" but no listener found. Try marking the message with Messenger.MarkAsPermanent.", eventType));
        }
#endif
    }

    static public BroadcastException CreateBroadcastSignatureException(string eventType) {
        return new BroadcastException(string.Format("Broadcasting message \"{0}\" but listeners have a different signature than the broadcaster.", eventType));
    }

    public class BroadcastException : Exception {
        public BroadcastException(string msg)
            : base(msg) {
        }
    }

    public class ListenerException : Exception {
        public ListenerException(string msg)
            : base(msg) {
        }
    }
    #endregion

    #region AddListener
    //No parameters
    static public void AddListener(string eventType, Callback handler) {
        OnListenerAdding(eventType, handler);
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback)eventTable[eventType] + handler;
    }

    //Single parameter
    static public void AddListener<T>(string eventType, Callback<T> handler) {
        OnListenerAdding(eventType, handler);
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback<T>)eventTable[eventType] + handler;
    }

    //Two parameters
    static public void AddListener<T, U>(string eventType, Callback<T, U> handler) {
        OnListenerAdding(eventType, handler);
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback<T, U>)eventTable[eventType] + handler;
    }

    //Three parameters
    static public void AddListener<T, U, V>(string eventType, Callback<T, U, V> handler) {
        OnListenerAdding(eventType, handler);
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback<T, U, V>)eventTable[eventType] + handler;
    }
    #endregion

    #region RemoveListener
    //No parameters
    static public void RemoveListener(string eventType, Callback handler) {
        OnListenerRemoving(eventType, handler);   
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback)eventTable[eventType] - handler;
        OnListenerRemoved(eventType);
    }

    //Single parameter
    static public void RemoveListener<T>(string eventType, Callback<T> handler) {
        OnListenerRemoving(eventType, handler);
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback<T>)eventTable[eventType] - handler;
        OnListenerRemoved(eventType);
    }

    //Two parameters
    static public void RemoveListener<T, U>(string eventType, Callback<T, U> handler) {
        OnListenerRemoving(eventType, handler);
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback<T, U>)eventTable[eventType] - handler;
        OnListenerRemoved(eventType);
    }

    //Three parameters
    static public void RemoveListener<T, U, V>(string eventType, Callback<T, U, V> handler) {
        OnListenerRemoving(eventType, handler);
        eventTable[eventType] = (Callback<T, U, V>)eventTable[eventType] - handler;
        OnListenerRemoved(eventType);
    }
    #endregion

    #region Broadcast
    //No parameters
    static public void Broadcast(string eventType) {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES || LOG_BROADCAST_MESSAGE
        Debug.Log("MESSENGER\t" + System.DateTime.Now.ToString("hh:mm:ss.fff") + "\t\t\tInvoking \t\"" + eventType + "\"");
#endif
        OnBroadcasting(eventType);

        Delegate d;
        if (eventTable.TryGetValue(eventType, out d)) {
            Callback callback = d as Callback;

            if (callback != null) {
                callback();
            } else {
                throw CreateBroadcastSignatureException(eventType);
            }
        }
    }

    //Single parameter
    static public void Broadcast<T>(string eventType, T arg1) {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES || LOG_BROADCAST_MESSAGE
        Debug.Log("MESSENGER\t" + System.DateTime.Now.ToString("hh:mm:ss.fff") + "\t\t\tInvoking \t\"" + eventType + "\"");
#endif
        OnBroadcasting(eventType);

        Delegate d;
        if (eventTable.TryGetValue(eventType, out d)) {
            Callback<T> callback = d as Callback<T>;

            if (callback != null) {
                callback(arg1);
            } else {
                throw CreateBroadcastSignatureException(eventType);
            }
        }
    }

    //Two parameters
    static public void Broadcast<T, U>(string eventType, T arg1, U arg2) {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES || LOG_BROADCAST_MESSAGE
        Debug.Log("MESSENGER\t" + System.DateTime.Now.ToString("hh:mm:ss.fff") + "\t\t\tInvoking \t\"" + eventType + "\"");
#endif
        OnBroadcasting(eventType);

        Delegate d;
        if (eventTable.TryGetValue(eventType, out d)) {
            Callback<T, U> callback = d as Callback<T, U>;

            if (callback != null) {
                callback(arg1, arg2);
            } else {
                throw CreateBroadcastSignatureException(eventType);
            }
        }
    }

    //Three parameters
    static public void Broadcast<T, U, V>(string eventType, T arg1, U arg2, V arg3) {
#if LOG_ALL_MESSAGES || LOG_BROADCAST_MESSAGE
        Debug.Log("MESSENGER\t" + System.DateTime.Now.ToString("hh:mm:ss.fff") + "\t\t\tInvoking \t\"" + eventType + "\"");
#endif
        OnBroadcasting(eventType);

        Delegate d;
        if (eventTable.TryGetValue(eventType, out d)) {
            Callback<T, U, V> callback = d as Callback<T, U, V>;

            if (callback != null) {
                callback(arg1, arg2, arg3);
            } else {
                throw CreateBroadcastSignatureException(eventType);
            }
        }
    }
    #endregion
}

//This manager will ensure that the messenger's eventTable will be cleaned up upon loading of a new level.
public sealed class MessengerHelper : MonoBehaviour {
    void Awake ()
    {
        DontDestroyOnLoad(gameObject);  
    }

    //Clean up eventTable every time a new level loads.
    public void OnLevelWasLoaded(int unused) {
        Messenger.Cleanup();
    }
}

当然,假如为了脚本管理方便,也可将两部分代码都合并在同一个脚本中,而且事件绑定的 key 都是以一个 string 来标志的,为了统一管理消息,这里我又创建了一个脚本 Msg_Define.cs

public class Msg_Define{
    public const string MSG_START = "MSG_START";
    public const string MSG_AWAKE = "MSG_AWAKE";
}

测试实例:

这里我们可以直接在一个测试场景中新建一个C#测试脚本,并都绑定到场景中的相机上(保证点击Unity运行时,脚本会处于工作状态),然后通过在脚本中广播一个事件(以多种传参形式),然后在脚本自身进行监听,如此完成自发自收的测试:

脚本 TestMsg.cs

using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;

public class TestMsg : MonoBehaviour {

    void Awake()
    {
        //监听消息
        Messenger.AddListener(Msg_Define.MSG_AWAKE, OnAwakeCall);
        Messenger.AddListener<int>(Msg_Define.MSG_START, OnStartCall);
        //发送不带参数广播
        Messenger.Broadcast(Msg_Define.MSG_AWAKE);
    }

    void Start()
    {
        //发送带参数广播
        Messenger.Broadcast<int>(Msg_Define.MSG_START,666);
    }

    void OnDestroy()
    {
        //移除监听
        Messenger.RemoveListener(Msg_Define.MSG_AWAKE, OnAwakeCall);
        Messenger.RemoveListener<int>(Msg_Define.MSG_START, OnStartCall);
    }
    //消息回调
    void OnAwakeCall()
    {
        Debug.logger.Log("awake");
    }

    void OnStartCall(int num)
    {
        Debug.logger.Log("start"+num);
    }
}

运行 Unity,可以在 Unity 的 Console 面板中看到输出结果:

awake
UnityEngine.Logger:Log(Object)
start666
UnityEngine.Logger:Log(Object)

参考资料:

文章最后发布于: 2017-08-01 11:50:37
展开阅读全文

没有更多推荐了,返回首页

©️2019 CSDN 皮肤主题: 书香水墨 设计师: CSDN官方博客

分享到微信朋友圈

×

扫一扫,手机浏览